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Total Quality Management in Practice: A Singapore Healthcare Study - Page 5

Findings and Analysis

Profile of Hospitals

Table 1 summarises the number of beds each respondent has in their hospital and Table 2 summarises the management level of the respondents. The findings revealed that 8 (50%) of hospitals' top management are medical practitioners, 7 (44%) are non-medical practitioners and 1 (6%) has a mixture of both. Table 1: No. of Beds at Respondents' Hospital

Size

Distribution

100 to 400 beds

7 (44%)

401 to 800 beds

6 (37%)

> 800 beds

3 (19%)

Source: Compiled by the Authors

Table 2: Management Level of Respondents

Management Level

Distribution

CEO

8 (50%)

Quality Manager

7 (44%)

Communications Manager

1 (6%)

Source: Compiled by the Authors

 

Observations and Issues

Table 3 determines the level of understanding of top management in developing a TQM culture and the TQM practices of Singapore hospitals.

The findings revealed that the majority of the respondents have:

i. a high level of understanding of what is required to develop a TQM culture

ii. conducted customer satisfaction surveys to understand the needs and expectations of the customers

iii. involved physicians in their decision-making process

iv. formed integrated networks to bring healthcare services closer to patients

v. adopted benchmarking

vi. used continuous training of doctors and staff

vii. developed recognition/reward schemes for doctors and staff for their positive contributions towards productivity, teamwork and leadership

Table 3: TQM Practices of Singapore Hospitals

Management Quality Practices

Adopted by No. of hospitals

%

Strategic Planning

 

 

Mission statement as an inherent part of strategic plan

15

97.3

Mission statement as a guide for gaining commitment in:

 

 

i. patient care

16

100

ii. training

15

97.3

iii. research

8

50.0

Physician involvement in strategic planning process

15

97.3

Integrated networks to bring healthcare services closer to patients

12

75.0

‘Managed care' programmes to contain rising healthcare costs

8

50.0

“One-stop shopping” for the diagnosis and treatment of virtually any medical problem

10

62.5

Quality Management

 

 

Quality consciousness and commitment by all staff

16

100

Conducted customer satisfaction survey

14

87.5

Organisational culture dedicated to continuous improvements

14

87.5

Adopted benchmarking

13

81.3

ISO 9000 certification:

 

 

i. ISO 9000 certified

5

31.0

ii. in the process of ISO 9000 certification

2

13.0

iii. Have QA systems but not ISO certified

4

25.0

iv. None of the above

5

31.0

Human Resource Management

 

 

An affirmative action equal opportunity employer

14

87.5

Training of doctors and staff

16

100

Used external resources for training of doctors and staff

14

87.5

Training, as part of strategic or competitive planning process

14

87.5

Organisational culture builds an environment for employee participation and involvement, teamwork and leadership

14

87.5

Developed recognition/rewards

13

81.3

Change management is an important aspect of Human Resource Management

13

81.3

Information and Innovation Management

 

 

Timely information from MIS to improve decision-making process, quality of patient care, productivity and reduction in costs

13

81.3

Extended role of computers from automating processes to enhancing quality

14

87.5

Use of medical technologies to improve process performance without increasing costs

13

81.3

Use of IS/IT and medical technologies for competitive advantage

11

68.6

Innovative ideas from staff resulted in improved productivity and increased customer satisfaction

12

75.0

Source: Compiled by the Authors

However, the majority of the respondents have not maintained proper documentation of their TQM programmes.

The results of the Kendall Tau Correlation Analysis carried out to identify the correlation among the variables are as follows:

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